Persistent neglect

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A note for Lesson no. 3, "Little Brains Wire Themselves to Their World," in Seven and a Half Lessons About the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context from page 59 is:

When children are persistently neglected, in all likelihood they’ll suffer ill effects eventually.

See these references.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

In addition, exposure to threat (separate from neglect and deprivation) is associated with speeded biological aging in children and adolescents, particularly girls.[7][8][9][10]


  1. McLaughlin, Katie A., David Weismann, and Debbie Bitrán. 2019. "Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: A Systematic Review." Annual Review of Developmental Psychology 1 (1): 277–312.
  2. McLaughlin, Katie A., Margaret A. Sheridan and Hilary K. Lambert. 2014. “Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 47: 578–591.
  3. Teicher, Martin, H., Jacqueline A. Samson, Carl M. Anderson, and Kyoko Ohashi. 2016. “The Effects Of Childhood Maltreatment On Brain Structure, Function and Connectivity.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17: 652–666.
  4. Tottenham, Nim. 2020. "Early Adversity and the Neotenous Human Brain." Biological Psychiatry 87 (4): 350–358.
  5. Teicher, Martin H., Carl M. Anderson, Kyoko Ohashi, Alaptagin Khan, Cynthia E. McGreenery, Elizabeth A. Bolger, Michael L. Rohan, and Gordana D. Vitaliano. 2018. "Differential Effects of Childhood Neglect and Abuse During Sensitive Exposure Periods on Male and Female Hippocampus." Neuroimage 169: 443–452.
  6. Riem, Madelon ME, Lenneke RA Alink, Dorothée Out, Marinus H. Van Ijzendoorn, and Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg. 2015. "Beating the Brain About Abuse: Empirical and Meta-analytic Studies of the Association Between Maltreatment and Hippocampal Volume Across Childhood and Adolescence." Development and Psychopathology 27 (2): 507–520.
  7. Sumner, Jennifer A., Natalie L. Colich, Monica Uddin, Don Armstrong, and Katie A. McLaughlin. 2019. "Early Experiences of Threat, But Not Deprivation, Are Associated With Accelerated Biological Aging in Children and Adolescents." Biological Psychiatry 85 (3): 268–278.
  8. Tang, Rosalind, Laura D. Howe, Matthew Suderman, Caroline L. Relton, Andrew A. Crawford, and Lotte C. Houtepen. 2020. "Adverse Childhood Experiences, DNA Methylation Age Acceleration, and Cortisol in UK Children: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study." Clinical Epigenetics 12: 1-9.
  9. Dunn, Erin C., Thomas W. Soare, Yiwen Zhu, Andrew J. Simpkin, Matthew J. Suderman, Torsten Klengel, Andrew DAC Smith, Kerry J. Ressler, and Caroline L. Relton. 2019. "Sensitive Periods for the Effect of Childhood Adversity on DNA Methylation: Results From a Prospective, Longitudinal Study." Biological Psychiatry 85 (10): 838–849.
  10. King, Lucy S., Kathryn L. Humphreys, M. Catalina Camacho, and Ian H. Gotlib. 2019. "A Person-Centered Approach to the Assessment of Early Life Stress: Associations with the Volume of Stress-Sensitive Brain Regions in Early Adolescence." Developmental Psychopathology 31 (2): 643–655.