Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

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A note for Lesson no. 6, "Brains Make More Than One Kind of Mind," in Seven and a Half Lessons About the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context from page 102‌‌‌‌ is:

You may have seen personality tests that collect information about you and assign you to a little box. A great example is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator...

The appendix adds:

The MBTI and various other personality tests have no more scientific validity than horoscopes.

See these references.[1][2][3][4]

To read about the more general point that many tests of personality assess what people believe about themselves, rather than how people actually behave in daily life, see these references.[5][6][7]


  1. Gardner, William L. and Mark J. Martinko. 1996. “Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Study Managers: A Literature Review and Research Agenda.” Journal of Management 22 (1): 45–83.
  2. Pittenger, David J. 2005. “Cautionary Comments Regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 57 (3): 210–221.
  3. Grant, Adam. 2013. “Goodbye to MBTI, the Fad That Won’t Die.” Psychology Today, September 18.
  4. Emre, Merve. 2018. The Personality Brokers: The Strange History of Myers-Briggs and the Birth of Personality Testing. New York: Doubleday.
  5. Barrett, L. F. (1997).  The relationship among momentary emotional experiences, personality descriptions, and retrospective ratings of emotion.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1100–1110.
  6. Barrett, L. F., Robin, L., Pietromonaco, P. R., & Eyssell, K. M.  (1998).  Are women the “more emotional sex?”  Evidence from emotional experiences in social context. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 555–578.
  7. Robinson, M. D., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Belief and feeling: Evidence for an accessibility model of emotional self-report. Psychological Bulletin, 128(6), 934–960.