Multiple languages

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A note for Lesson no. 3, "Little Brains Wire Themselves to Their World," in Seven and a Half Lessons About the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context from page 55–56 is:

If people interacted with you in multiple languages when you were a baby, then your brain was likely tuned and pruned to hear and distinguish the sounds in those languages.

See these references.[1][2][3][4]


  1. Costa, Albert, and Núria Sebastián-Gallés. 2014. "How Does the Bilingual Experience Sculpt the Brain?" Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15 (5): 336–345.
  2. Petitto, Laura-Ann, Melody S. Berens, Ioulia Kovelman, Matt H. Dubins, K. Jasinska, and M. Shalinsky. 2012. "The 'Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis' as the Basis For Bilingual Babies’ Phonetic Processing Advantage: New Insights From fNIRS Brain Imaging." Brain and Language 121 (2): 130–143.
  3. Hayakawa, Sayuri, and Viorica Marian. 2019. "Consequences of Multilingualism for Neural Architecture." Behavioral and Brain Functions 15 (1): 6.
  4. Bice, Kinsey, and Judith F. Kroll. 2020. "English only? Monolinguals In Linguistically Diverse Contexts Have an Edge in Language Learning." Brain and Language, doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2019.104644. (Paper is embargoed until September 1, 2020.)