Immigration and illness

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A note for Lesson no. 6, "Brains Make More Than One Kind of Mind," in Seven and a Half Lessons About the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context from page 109 is:

This is particularly true for the children of immigrants. They are of two cultures—their parents’ culture and their adopted culture—and have to pivot between two kinds of minds, which adds a burden to their body budgets.

See these references to learn a bit about links between migration, acculturation and health.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

But the issue is complicated.[10][11]

For an excellent discussion of how learning a new language can influence the mind in ways that might enhance prediction errors, see this reference.[12]


  1. Yim, Ilona S., Karina Corona, Esmeralda R. Garcia, Amanda M. Acevedo, and Belinda Campos. 2019. "Perceived Stress and Cortisol Reactivity Among Immigrants To the United States: The Importance of Bicultural Identity Integration." Psychoneuroendocrinology 107: 201–207.
  2. Yoon, Eunju, Chih-Ting Chang, Soyeon Kim, Angela Clawson, Sarah Elizabeth Cleary, Meghan Hansen, John P. Bruner, Theresa K. Chan, and Alexandrina M. Gomes. 2013. "A Meta-analysis of Acculturation/Enculturation and Mental Health." Journal of Counseling Psychology 60 (1): 15.
  3. Castañeda, Heide, Seth M. Holmes, Daniel S. Madrigal, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad Young, Naomi Beyeler, and James Quesada. 2015. "Immigration As a Social Determinant of Health." Annual review of Public Health 36: 375–392.
  4. Porter, Matthew, and Nick Haslam. 2005. "Predisplacement and Postdisplacement Factors Associated With Mental Health of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Meta-Analysis." JAMA 294 (5): 602–612.
  5. Akdeniz, Ceren, Heike Tost, Fabian Streit, Leila Haddad, Stefan Wüst, Axel Schäfer, Michael Schneider, Marcella Rietschel, Peter Kirsch, and Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg. 2014. "Neuroimaging Evidence for a Role of Neural Social Stress Processing in Ethnic Minority–associated Environmental Risk." JAMA Psychiatry 71 (6): 672–680. See also its commentary: Wager, Tor D., and Peter J. Gianaros. 2014. "The Social Brain, Stress, and Psychopathology." JAMA Psychiatry 71 (6): 622–624.
  6. Egerton, Alice, Oliver D. Howes, Sylvain Houle, Kwame McKenzie, Lucia R. Valmaggia, Michael R. Bagby, Huai-Hsuan Tseng et al. 2017. "Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis." Schizophrenia Bulletin 43 (2): 293–301.
  7. Tuggle, Alexandra C., Jeffrey H. Cohen, and Douglas E. Crews. 2018. "Stress, Migration, and Allostatic Load: A Model Based on Mexican Migrants in Columbus, Ohio." Journal of Physiological Anthropology 37 (1): 1–11.
  8. Giacco, Domenico, Neelam Laxhman, and Stefan Priebe. 2018. "Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Mental Disorders in Refugees." In Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 77: 144–152. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
  9. Kirmayer, Laurence J., Lavanya Narasiah, Marie Munoz, Meb Rashid, Andrew G. Ryder, Jaswant Guzder, Ghayda Hassan, Cécile Rousseau, and Kevin Pottie. 2011. "Common Mental Health Problems in Immigrants and Refugees: General Approach in Primary Care." CMAJ 183 (12): E959-E967.
  10. Nguyen, Angela-MinhTu D., and Verónica Benet-Martínez. 2013. "Biculturalism and Adjustment: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 44 (1): 122–159.
  11. Yoon, Eunju, Jason Hacker, Amber Hewitt, Matthew Abrams, and Sarah Cleary. 2012. "Social Connectedness, Discrimination, and Social Status As Mediators of Acculturation/enculturation and Well-being." Journal of Counseling Psychology 59 (1): 86.
  12. Pavlenko, Aneta. 2014. The Bilingual Mind: And What it Tells Us About Language and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.