From 7½ Lessons
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A note for Lesson no. 5, "Your Brain Secretly Works With Other Brains," in Seven and a Half Lessons About the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context from page 84 is:

This co-regulation has measurable effects. Changes in one person’s body often prompt changes in another person’s body.....

Physiological co-regulation occurs:

  • In strangers who feel close to one another[7]
  • In yoga classes[9]
  • In people sharing a common experience[10]
  • When taking an exam collaboratively[15]
  • Between therapists and their clients[16][17]

See also

  • A general review of physiological co-regulation[25]
  • Additional references (see also the references therein)[26]
  • Research on co-regulation of behavior, called mirroring or mimicry[27][28][29][30]


  1. Levenson, Robert W., and John M. Gottman. 1983. "Marital Interaction: Physiological Linkage and Affective Exchange." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (3): 587–597.
  2. Helm, Jonathan L., David A. Sbarra, and Emilio Ferrer. 2014. "Coregulation of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Adult Romantic Partners." Emotion 14 (3): 522–531.
  3. Saxbe, Darby, and Rena L. Repetti. 2010. "For Better or Worse? Coregulation of Couples’ Cortisol Levels and Mood States." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (1): 92–103.
  4. Timmons, Adela C., Gayla Margolin, and Darby E. Saxbe. 2015. "Physiological Linkage in Couples and Its Implications for Individual and Interpersonal Functioning: a Literature Review." Journal of Family Psychology 29 (5): 720–731.
  5. Reed, Rebecca G., Ashley K. Randall, Jessica H. Post, and Emily A. Butler. 2013. "Partner Influence and In-phase Versus Anti-phase Physiological Linkage in Romantic Couples." International Journal of Psychophysiology 88 (3): 309–316.
  6. Shearn, Don, Leslie Spellman, Ben Straley, Julie Meirick, and Karma Stryker. 1999. "Empathic Blushing in Friends and Strangers." Motivation and Emotion 23 (4): 307–316.
  7. Sharon-David, Hilla, Moran Mizrahi, Michal Rinott, Yulia Golland, and Gurit E. Birnbaum. 2019. "Being on the Same Wavelength: Behavioral Synchrony Between Partners and Its Influence on the Experience of Intimacy." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 36 (10): 2983–3008.
  8. Müller, Viktor, and Ulman Lindenberger. 2011 "Cardiac and Respiratory Patterns Synchronize Between Persons During Choir Singing." PloS One 6 (9): e24893.
  9. Quer, Giorgio, Joshal Daftari, and Ramesh R. Rao. 2016. "Heart Rate Wavelet Coherence Analysis To Investigate Group Entrainment." Pervasive and Mobile Computing 28: 21–34.
  10. Ardizzi, Martina, Marta Calbi, Simona Tavaglione, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, and Vittorio Gallese. 2020. "Audience Spontaneous Entrainment During the Collective Enjoyment of Live Performances: Physiological and Behavioral Measurements." Scientific Reports 10 (1): 1–12.
  11. Konvalinka, Ivana, Dimitris Xygalatas, Joseph Bulbulia, Uffe Schjødt, Else-Marie Jegindø, Sebastian Wallot, Guy Van Orden, and Andreas Roepstorff. 2011. "Synchronized Arousal Between Performers and Related Spectators in a Fire-walking Ritual." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (20): 8514–8519.
  12. Järvelä, Simo, J. Matias Kivikangas, Jari Kätsyri, and Niklas Ravaja. 2014. "Physiological Linkage of Dyadic Gaming Experience." Simulation & Gaming 45 (1): 24–40.
  13. Ekman, Inger, Guillaume Chanel, Simo Järvelä, J. Matias Kivikangas, Mikko Salminen, and Niklas Ravaja. 2012. "Social Interaction in Games: Measuring Physiological Linkage and Social Presence." Simulation & Gaming 43 (3): 321–338.
  14. Mitkidis, Panagiotis, John J. McGraw, Andreas Roepstorff, and Sebastian Wallot. 2015. "Building Trust: Heart Rate Synchrony and Arousal During Joint Action Increased By Public Goods Game." Physiology & Behavior 149: 101–106.
  15. Malmberg, Jonna, Eetu Haataja, Tapio Seppänen, and Sanna Järvelä. "Are We Together or Not? the Temporal Interplay of Monitoring, Physiological Arousal and Physiological Synchrony During a Collaborative Exam." International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning 14 (4): 467–490.
  16. Marci, Carl D., Jacob Ham, Erin Moran, and Scott P. Orr. 2007. "Physiologic Correlates of Perceived Therapist Empathy and Social-emotional Process During Psychotherapy." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195 (2): 103–111.
  17. Ramseyer, Fabian, and Wolfgang Tschacher. 2011. "Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79 (3): 284–295.
  18. Van Puyvelde, Martine, Gerrit Loots, Joris Meys, Xavier Neyt, Olivier Mairesse, David Simcock, and Nathalie Pattyn. 2015. "Whose Clock Makes Yours Tick? How Maternal Cardiorespiratory Physiology Influences Newborns’ Heart Rate Variability." Biological Psychology 108: 132–141.
  19. Waters, Sara F., Tessa V. West, and Wendy Berry Mendes. 2014. "Stress Contagion: Physiological Covariation Between Mothers and Infants." Psychological Science 25 (4): 934–942.
  20. Waters, Sara F., and Wendy Berry Mendes. 2016. "Physiological and Relational Predictors of Mother-infant Behavioral Coordination." Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology 2 (4): 298–310.
  21. Bell, Martha Ann. 2020. "Mother-Child Behavioral and Physiological Synchrony." Advances in Child Development and Behavior 58: 163–188.
  22. Creaven, Ann‐Marie, Elizabeth A. Skowron, Brian M. Hughes, Siobhán Howard, and Eric Loken. 2014. "Dyadic Concordance in Mother and Preschooler Resting Cardiovascular Function Varies By Risk Status." Developmental Psychobiology 56 (1): 142–152.
  23. Ghafar-Tabrizi, Robabeh. 2008. "Reversal Theory and Physiological Linkage in the Low-Conflict and High-Conflict Mother-Daughter Dyadic Interactions." Contemporary Psychology 3 (1): 62–75.
  24. Feldman, Ruth, Romi Magori-Cohen, Giora Galili, Magi Singer, and Yoram Louzoun. 2011. "Mother and Infant Coordinate Heart Rhythms Through Episodes of Interaction Synchrony." Infant Behavior and Development 34 (4): 569–577.
  25. Palumbo, Richard V., Marisa E. Marraccini, Lisa L. Weyandt, Oliver Wilder-Smith, Heather A. McGee, Siwei Liu, and Matthew S. Goodwin. 2017. "Interpersonal Autonomic Physiology: A Systematic Review of the Literature." Personality and Social Psychology Review 21 (2): 99–141.
  26. Koban, Leonie, Anand Ramamoorthy, and Ivana Konvalinka. 2019. "Why Do We Fall Into Sync With Others? Interpersonal Synchronization and the Brain’s Optimization Principle." Social Neuroscience 14 (1): 1–9.
  27. Chartrand, Tanya L., and John A. Bargh. 1999. "The Chameleon Effect: the Perception–Behavior Link and Social Interaction." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 (6): 893–910.
  28. Maddux, William W., Elizabeth Mullen, and Adam D. Galinsky. 2008. "Chameleons Bake Bigger Pies and Take Bigger Pieces: Strategic Behavioral Mimicry Facilitates Negotiation Outcomes." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44 (2): 461–468.
  29. Prochazkova, Eliska, and Mariska E. Kret. 2017. "Connecting Minds and Sharing Emotions Through Mimicry: A Neurocognitive Model of Emotional Contagion." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 80: 99–114.
  30. Rigoli, Lillian M., Tamara Lorenz, Charles Coey, Rachel Kallen, Scott Jordan, and Michael J. Richardson. 2020. "Co-actors Exhibit Similarity in Their Structure of Behavioural Variation That Remains Stable Across Range of Naturalistic Activities." Scientific Reports 10 (1): 1–11.
  31. Hasson, Uri, Asif A. Ghazanfar, Bruno Galantucci, Simon Garrod, and Christian Keysers. 2012. "Brain-to-brain Coupling: A Mechanism for Creating and Sharing a Social World." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2): 114–121.
  32. Liu, Yichuan, Elise A. Piazza, Erez Simony, Patricia A. Shewokis, Banu Onaral, Uri Hasson, and Hasan Ayaz. 2017. "Measuring Speaker–listener Neural Coupling With Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy." Scientific Reports 7: 43293.
  33. Piazza, Elise A., Liat Hasenfratz, Uri Hasson, and Casey Lew-Williams. 2020. "Infant and Adult Brains Are Coupled to the Dynamics of Natural Communication." Psychological Science 31 (1): 6–17.
  34. Zadbood, Asieh, Janice Chen, Yuan Chang Leong, Kenneth A. Norman, and Uri Hasson. 2017 "How We Transmit Memories to Other Brains: Constructing Shared Neural Representations Via Communication." Cerebral Cortex 27 (10): 4988–5000.
  35. Nguyen, Mai, Tamara Vanderwal, and Uri Hasson. 2019. "Shared Understanding of Narratives Is Correlated With Shared Neural Responses." NeuroImage 184: 161–170.